Dr. Wai-Ka Chan (Ka Sir)

Email: chanwk@abs.edu

Thur 1:15-4:00pm (Winter 2020)

Office 302 (Office hours by appointment)


BS 608 The Intertestamental Literature


I.  Course Descriptions and Objectives


Although the Intertestamental period has its roots before the destruction of the First Temple by the Babylonians in 586 BCE—that is, in the earlier pre-exilic period that is described in the Hebrew Bible—Jewish culture emerged in the so-called Second Temple period. This period begins when Jews in Judaea, Mesopotamia, and Egypt found themselves under Persian rule, and Jews were able to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. The Second Temple period continues for six centuries, with Jews living under Persian, Greek, and Roman empires until the destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans in 70 CE. It is during the intervening centuries that Jewish culture developed a number of characteristics that define Jewish religious experience to this day—engagement with the Bible, institutions such as the synagogue, the notion of Judaism itself as a voluntary religious identity—but Jewish culture in this period was also quite diverse and different in many ways from the Judaism that would develop in Late Antiquity in the wake of the Talmud and rabbinic interpretive activity.


During this period, a number of literary sources—anonymous works that imitate or seek to interpret the Bible and were preserved by later Christian (the so-called Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha) works by known authors writing in Greek, such as the 1st-century Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria and the historian Flavius Josephus; the assemblage of texts discovered in the caves of the Judaean Desert, known as the Dead Sea Scrolls; and other sources. From this literary evidence, augmented by archaeological evidence from Jerusalem, Masada, and other sites, scholars have been able to reconstruct a picture of how Jewish culture emerged out of the remnants of ancient Israelite culture and developed into what would later be known as Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism.


Therefore, the Jewish writings of the Second Temple Period are significant for the interpretation of the NT as they bear witness to the historical, literary, and theological context of the apostolic writings, particularly, the comprehensive study of the use of Old Testament in the Second Temple Jewish Literature which help us to shed the light in the understanding of the interaction of the use of the Old Testament by the New Testament writers.

This course is designed to enhance the student’s overall examination for the understanding of the Intertestamental Literature. Students who successfully complete this course should


a.                   Be able to grasp the basic understanding of Intertestamental literature.

b.                  Be able to identify the continuity and discontinuity with regard to earlier traditions.

c.                   Be able to explain the exegetical relationship between the Intertestamental literature and New Testament writings.  

d.                  Refine the exegetical skills learnt in LA 513, 514, 519.

e.                  Enjoy the cooperative dynamics and relationships in the whole course with the aid of the response group.



II.             Course Texts (Required)

Collins John J. and Daniel C. Harlow ed. Early Judaism: A Comprehensive Overview. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2012.




Jewish Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha

A. Some Critical Studies

Roland Barthes, “The Death of the Author,’ in his Image, Music, Text (trans. Stephen Heath; New York: Hill and Wang, 1977), 142-48.

Regina Bendix, In Search of Authenticity: The Formation of Folklore Studies (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1997).

Gerald L. Bruns, “The Originality of Texts in a Manuscript Culture,” Comparative Literature 32 (1980): 113-29.

Bernard Cerquiglini, In Praise of the Variant: A Critical History of Philology (trans. Betsy Wing; Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999).

Roger Chartier, “Figures of the Author,” in his The Order of Books: Readers, Authors, and Libraries in Europe between the Fourteenth and Eighteenth Centuries (trans. Lydia G. Cochrane; Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994), 25-59.

Umberto Eco, “The Force of Falsity,” in his Serendipities: Language and Lunacy (trans. William Weaver; New York: Columbia University Press, 1998; repr., San Diego: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1999), 1-21.

Anthony Grafton, Forgers and Critics: Creativity and Duplicity in Western Scholarship (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990).

Robert J. Griffin, “Anonymity and Authorship,” New Literary History 30 (1999): 877-95.

Ian Haywood, Faking It: Art and the Politics of Forgery (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987).

Rebecca Moore Howard, “Plagiarisms, Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty,” College English 57 (1995): 788-806.

Peggy Kamuf, Signature Pieces: On the Institution of Authorship (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988).

James Kennedy et al., “Notes on Anonymity and Pseudonymity,” in Samuel Halkett and John Laing, Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous English Literature (9 vols.; Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1926-62), 1:xi-xxiii.

Donald E. Pease, “Author,” in Frank Lentricchia and Thomas McLaughlin, eds., Critical Terms for Literary Study (2d ed.; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 105-17.

K. K. Ruthven, Faking Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

Jack Stillinger, Multiple Authorship and the Myth of Solitary Genius (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991).

B. Some Important Collections of Biblical Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha

Richard Bauckham, James R. Davila, and Alexander Panaytov, eds., Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: More Noncanonical Scriptures, Volume 1 (Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 2013).

R. H. Charles, ed., The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English (2 vols.; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913).

James H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (2 vols.; Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1983-85).

André Dupont-Sommer and Marc Philonenko, eds., La Bible: Écrits intertestamentaires (Paris: Gallimard, 1987).

Louis H. Feldman, James L. Kugel, and Lawrence H. Schiffman, eds., Outside the Bible: Ancient Jewish Writings Related to Scripture (3 vols.; Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 2013).

Abraham Kahana, ed., Ha-sefarim ha-ḥiṣonim (2 vols.; Tel Aviv, 1936-37; repr., Tel Aviv: Masada, 1956).

E(mil). Kautzsch, ed., Die Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments (2 vols.; Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1898-1900).

Paul Riessler, Altjüdisches Schrifttum ausserhalb der Bibel (Augsburg: B. Filser, 1928).

H. F. D. Sparks, ed., The Apocryphal Old Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984).

C. Generic Surveys of Biblical Pseudepigrapha

James H. Charlesworth, The Pseudepigrapha and Modern Research, With a Supplement (Chico, Calif.: Scholars Press, 1981).

Albert-Marie Denis and Jean-Claude Haelewyck, Introduction à la literature religieuse judéo-hellénistique: Pseudépigraphes de l’Ancien Testament (2 vols.; Turnhout: Brepols, 2000). A much expanded and revised edition of Albert-Marie Denis, Introduction aux pseudépigraphes grecs d’Ancien Testament (Leiden: Brill, 1970).

Susan Docherty, The Jewish Pseudepigrapha: An Introduction to the Literature of the Second Temple Period (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2015).

M. R. James, The Lost Apocrypha of the Old Testament, Their Titles and Fragments (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1920). Note especially the important collection of materials amassed by Bob Kraft and his associates here.

Robert A. Kraft and George W. E. Nickelsburg, eds., Early Judaism and its Modern Interpreters (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1986). See especially the essays by Attridge, Collins, Doran, Harrington, Horgan, and Kolenkow.

George W. E. Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah: A Historical and Literary Introduction (Philadelphia, 1981; 2d ed., Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005).

Emil Schürer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C.-A.D. 135): A New English Version (rev. and ed. Geza Vermes, Fergus Millar, and Martin Goodman; 3 vols. in 4; Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1973-87), 3.1:177-704; 3.2:705-808.

Michael E. Stone, ed., Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period (CRINT 2.2; Assen and Philadelphia: Van Gorcum and Fortress Press, 1984). Practically every article in this seminal collection is of extraordinary importance.

Charles Cutler Torrey, The Apocryphal Literature: A Brief Introduction (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1945).



D. Issues in Biblical Pseudepigraphy

William Adler, “The Pseudepigrapha in Early Christianity,” in Lee Martin McDonald and James A. Sanders, eds., The Canon Debate (Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2002), 211-28.

Gary A. Anderson and Michael E. Stone, eds., A Synopsis of the Books of Adam and Eve (2d ed.; SBLEJL 17; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1999).

Gary [A.] Anderson, Michael [E.] Stone, and Johannes Tromp, eds., Literature on Adam and Eve: Collected Essays (SVTP 15; Leiden: Brill, 2000).

James E. Bowley and John C. Reeves, “Rethinking the Concept of ‘Bible’: Some Theses and Proposals,” Henoch 25 (2003): 3-18.

Daniel Boyarin, Border Lines: The Partition of Judaeo-Christianity (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004).

______, Dying for God: Martyrdom and the Making of Christianity and Judaism (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999), esp. 1-21.

______, “Semantic Differences; or, ‘Judaism’/‘Christianity’,” in Adam H. Becker and Annette Yoshiko Reed, eds., The Ways that Never Parted: Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (TSAJ 95; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003), 65-85.

Norbert Brox, ed., Pseudepigraphie in der heidnischen und jüdisch-christlichen Antike (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1977).

David Bundy, “Pseudepigrapha in Syriac Literature,” in Kent H. Richards, ed., Society of Biblical Literature 1991 Seminar Papers (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1991), 745-65.

James H. Charlesworth, “A History of Pseudepigrapha Research: The Re-emerging Importance of the Pseudepigrapha,” in Wolfgang Haase, ed., Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt, II.19.1: Religion (Judentum: Allgemeines; palästinisches Judentum) (Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1979), 54-88.

Naomi G. Cohen, “From Nabi to Mal’ak to ‘Ancient Figure’,” Journal of Jewish Studies 36 (1985): 12-24.

Shaye J. D. Cohen, The Beginnings of Jewishness: Boundaries, Varieties, Uncertainties (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).

Philip R. Davies, “Spurious Attribution in the Hebrew Bible,” in James R. Lewis and Olav Hammer, eds., The Invention of Sacred Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 258-76.

Devorah Dimant, “The Biography of Enoch and the Books of Enoch,” Vetus Testamentum 33 (1983): 14-29.

David Frankfurter, “Beyond ‘Jewish Christianity’: Continuing Religious Sub-Cultures of the Second and Third Centuries and Their Documents,” in Becker and Reed, The Ways that Never Parted, 131-43.

______, “Jews or Not? Reconstructing the ‘Other’ in Rev 2:9 and 3:9,” Harvard Theological Review 94 (2001): 403-25.

J.-C. Haelewyck, Clavis apocryphorum Veteris Testamenti (Turnhout: Brepols, 1998). Supplies a comprehensive bibliography of important editions and studies.

Moshe D. Herr, “Les raisons de la conservation des restes de la literature juive de l’époque du Second Temple,” Apocrypha 1 (1990): 219-30.

Martha Himmelfarb, Tours of Hell: An Apocalyptic Form in Jewish and Christian Literature (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983; repr., Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985), esp. 127-68.

Marinus de Jonge, “Christian Influence in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs,” Novum Testamentum 4 (1960): 182-235.

______, Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament as Part of Christian Literature: The Case of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs and the Greek Life of Adam and Eve (SVTP 18; Leiden: Brill, 2003).

______, “The So-Called Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament and Early Christianity,” in Peder Borgen and Søren Giversen, eds., The New Testament and Hellenistic Judaism (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1995), 59-71.

______, “The Transmission of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs by Christians,” Vigiliae Christianae 47 (1993): 1-28.

______, “The Two Great Commandments in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs,” Novum Testamentum 44 (2002): 371-92.

Michael A. Knibb, “Christian Adoption and Transmission of Jewish Pseudepigrapha: The Case of 1 Enoch,” Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 32 (2001): 396-415.

Ross Kraemer, When Aseneth Met Joseph: A Late Antique Tale of the Biblical Patriarch and his Wife Reconsidered (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Robert A. Kraft, “The Codex and Canon Consciousness,” in McDonald-Sanders, The Canon Debate, 229-33.

______, Exploring the Scripturesque: Jewish Texts and Their Christian Contexts (Leiden: Brill, 2009).

______, “The Pseudepigrapha in Christianity,” in John C. Reeves, ed., Tracing the Threads: Studies in the Vitality of Jewish Pseudepigrapha (SBLEJL 6; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1994), 55-86.

______, “Scripture and Canon in Jewish Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha,” in Magne Sæbø, ed., Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: The History of Its Interpretation (2 vols.; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1996-2000), 1:199-216.

______, “Setting the Stage and Framing Some Central Questions,” Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 32 (2001): 371-95.

______, “The Weighing of the Parts: Pivots and Pitfalls in the Study of Early Judaisms and their Early Christian Offspring,” in Becker and Reed, The Ways that Never Parted, 87-94.

James L. Kugel, In Potiphar’s House: The Interpretive Life of Biblical Texts (San Francisco: Harper, 1990).

______, Traditions of the Bible (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998).

David Lambert, “How the ‘Torah of Moses’ Became Revelation: An Early, Apocalyptic Theory of Pentateuchal Origins,” Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 46 (2015): 1-33.

Hayim Lapin, “Introduction: Locating Ethnicity and Religious Community in Later Roman Palestine,” in idem, ed., Religious and Ethnic Communities in Later Roman Palestine (Bethesda, Md.: University Press of Maryland, 1998), 1-28.

Judith M. Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).

______, “‘Impregnable Ramparts and Walls of Iron’: Boundary and Identity in Early ‘Judaism’ and ‘Christianity’,” New Testament Studies 48 (2002): 297-313.

David G. Meade, Pseudonymity and Canon: An Investigation into the Relationship of Authorship and Authority in Jewish and Earliest Christian Tradition (WUNT 39; Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1986), 1-16.

Bruce M. Metzger, “Literary Forgeries and Canonical Pseudepigrapha,” Journal of Biblical Literature 91 (1972): 3-24.

Hindy Najman, “The Vitality of Scripture Within and Beyond the ‘Canon’,” Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 43 (2012): 497-518.

George W. E. Nickelsburg, “Scripture in 1 Enoch and 1 Enoch as Scripture,” in Tord Fornberg and David Hellholm, eds., Texts and Contexts: Biblical Texts in Their Textual and Situational Contexts: Essays in Honor of Lars Hartman (Oslo: Scandinavian University Press, 1995), 333-54.

Rivka Nir, “The Aromatic Fragrances of Paradise in the Greek Life of Adam and Eve and the Christian Origin of the Composition,” Novum Testamentum 46 (2004): 20-45. [see Smit below]

______, The Destruction of Jerusalem and the Idea of Redemption in the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (SBLEJL 20; Leiden/Atlanta: Brill/Society of Biblical Literature, 2003).

Annette Yoshiko Reed, “The Afterlives of New Testament Apocrypha,” Journal of Biblical Literature 134 (2015): 401-25.

______, “The Modern Invention of ‘Old Testament Pseudepigrapha’,” Journal of Theological Studies 60 (2009): 403-36.

John C. Reeves, “Complicating the Notion of an Enochic Judaism,” in Gabriele Boccaccini, ed., Enoch and Qumran Origins: New Light on a Forgotten Connection (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 2005), 373-83.

______, “Exploring the Afterlife of Jewish Pseudepigrapha in Medieval Near Eastern Religious Traditions: Some Initial Soundings,” Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period 30 (1999): 148-77.

______, Heralds of That Good Realm: Syro-Mesopotamian Gnosis and Jewish Traditions (NHMS 41; Leiden: Brill, 1996), esp. 31-64.

______, “Problematizing the Bible … Then and Now,” Jewish Quarterly Review 100 (2010): 139-52.

______, “Scriptural Authority in Early Judaism,” in James E. Bowley, ed., Living Traditions of the Bible: Scripture in Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Practice (St. Louis: Chalice Press, 1999), 63-84.

______, “Some Explorations of the Intertwining of Bible and Qur’ān,” in John C. Reeves, ed., Bible and Qur’ān: Essays in Scriptural Intertextuality (SBLSymS 24; Leiden/Atlanta: Brill/Society of Biblical Literature, 2003), 43-60.

______, ed., Tracing the Threads: Studies in the Vitality of Jewish Pseudepigrapha (SBLEJL 6; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1994). A collection of solicited essays addressing pseudepigraphic ‘survivals’ in Jewish, Christian, Muslim, and other Near Eastern religious and literary texts.

Francesca Rochberg-Halton, “Canonicity in Cuneiform Texts,” Journal of Cuneiform Studies 36 (1984): 127-44.

David Satran, Biblical Prophets in Byzantine Palestine: Reassessing the Lives of the Prophets (SVTP 11; Leiden: Brill, 1995).

Peter-Ben Smit, “Incense Revisited: Reviewing the Evidence for Incense as a Clue to the Christian Provenance of the Greek Life of Adam and Eve,” Novum Testamentum 46 (2004): 369-75.

Morton Smith, “Pseudepigraphy in the Israelite Literary Tradition,” in Kurt von Fritz, ed., Pseudepigrapha I (Vandœuvres-Genève: Fondation Hardt pour l’Étude l’antiquité classique, 1972), 191-215.

Wolfgang Speyer, Bücherfunde in der Glaubenswerbung der Antike (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1970).

______, Die literarische Fälschung im heidnischen und christlichen Altertum (München: C. H. Beck, 1971).

______, “Religiöse Pseudepigraphie und literarische Fälschung im Altertum,” Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum 8/9 (1965-66): 88-125.

Michael E. Stone, Ancient Judaism: New Visions and Views (Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 2011). An excellent survey of the primary issues.

______, Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, and Armenian Studies: Collected Papers (OLA 144-145; 2 vols.; Leuven: Peeters, 2006). Reprints a plethora of groundbreaking articles.

______, “Aramaic Levi in Its Contexts,” Jewish Studies Quarterly 9 (2002): 307-26.

______, “The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Pseudepigrapha,” Dead Sea Discoveries 3 (1996): 270-95.

______, A History of the Literature of Adam and Eve (SBLEJL 3; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992).

______, “Jewish Tradition, the Pseudepigrapha and the Christian West,” in D. R. G. Beattie and M. J. McNamara, eds., The Aramaic Bible: Targums in their Historical Context (JSOTSup 166; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1994), 431-49.

______, Selected Studies in Pseudepigrapha and Apocrypha with Special Reference to the Armenian Tradition (SVTP 9; Leiden: Brill, 1991). Reprints a plethora of groundbreaking articles.

Michael E. Stone and Theodore A. Bergren, eds., Biblical Figures Outside the Bible (Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 1998).

Johannes Tromp, “The Story of Our Lives: The qz-Text of the Life of Adam and Eve, the Apostle Paul, and the Jewish-Christian Oral Tradition Concerning Adam and Eve,” New Testament Studies 50 (2004): 205-23.

James C. VanderKam, From Revelation to Canon: Studies in the Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Literature (Leiden: Brill, 2000). Reprints a number of important essays.

Jed Wyrick, The Ascension of Authorship: Attribution and Canon Formation in Jewish, Hellenistic, and Christian Traditions (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004).


III. Course Evaluation:

a. Reading the assigned book (10%). Students are also expected to have completed all the required readings (Collins and Harlow). (600 minutes 450 pages)

b.Reflection papers (90%) Students are expected to have three reflection papers (1500 words each) in three Second Temple Jewish literatures to demonstrate how their theological themes related to the New Testament books (800*3=2400 minutes).

c. The course will be graded on the following scale:

A = 94-100;      A- = 90-93;    

B+ = 87-89;      B = 83-86;    B- = 80-82; 

C+ = 77-79;      C =73-76;     C- = 70-72;  

D+ = 67-69;      D = 63-66     D- = 60-62;

F = 59 and below


IV. Course Schedule Date






Lesson 1


The Overview of the Intertestamental Literature

C&H: Early Judaism in Modern Scholarship

Lesson 2


OT Apocrypha (I)

C&H: Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha

Lesson 3


OT Apocrypha (II)

C&H Judaism in the Land of Israel

Lesson 4


Pseudepigraphal works (I)

C&H Judaism in the Diaspora

Lesson 5


Pseudepigraphal works (II)

C&H The Jewish Scriptures

Lesson 6


Dead Sea Scrolls (I)

C&H The Dead Sea Scrolls

Lesson 7


Dead Sea Scrolls (II)

C&H Early Jewish Biblical Interpretation

Lesson 8



C&H Josephus

Lesson 9



C&H Philo

Lesson 10






V. Helpful Websites

Biblical Studies search - http://www.bsw.org/

2nd Temple synagogues - http://www.smu.edu/~dbinder/index.htmlDead

Sea Scrolls (Qumran) - http://orion.mscc.huji.ac.il/

Jewish Scholars on Christianity – Dabru Emet http://www.icjs.org/what/njsp/dabruemet.html


VI. Academic Policies

Academic Integrity is an essential and fundamental attitude in the search for and promotion of truth. Thus, no Cheating and Plagiarism is allowed in the whole course, including all the quizzes, tests, and translation and exegetical assignments. A student found to break the standard of academic integrity by cheating or plagiarism will be confronted by the faculty member involved and will be reported to the Academic Dean of ABS. This will result in a “zero” grade for that quiz, test, or paper, which may result in an “F” for the whole course.